Landscapes of the UK
A type of erosion involving the scaping action of rocks and stones carried by rivers or waves.
A reduction in the size of material carried by rivers and waves as the rocks bump into each other.
The dropping, or laying down, of material carried by a river, waves or glaciers.
The wearing away and removal of material by a moving force, such as a river or a breaking wave.
The flat area of land beside a river (formed in the river’s lower course) which may be flooded.
A type of weathering in which water in cracks repeatedly freezes and thaws, so weakening rock.
The study of rocks and how they formed. Geology can also mean rock type.
The natural processes, such as erosion, that change the shape of the land.
Headland and Bay
A piece of land that sticks out into the sea (headland) alternating with indentations (bays).
A type of erosion in which the pressure of the water hitting a surface, compresses air in cracks.
A surface or substance that does not allow water to pass through it e.g. clay.
The movement of sediment along a coastline when the breaking waves (swash) hit at an angle.
The movement of large quantities of weathered material downhill, under the influence of gravity.
A large bend in a river’s course. This may get cut through to form an oxbow lake.
A type of mass movement in which loose material moves downhill along a curved plane.
The transport of material (by a river or waves) by ‘bouncing’ along the river or sea bed.
The transport of heavy material (by a river or waves) by rolling or pushing along the river/sea bed.
The breakdown of rock ‘in situ’ by physical, chemical and biological processes.
A feature or quality of something e.g. characteristics of upland areas are that they are colder and wetter than the surrounding lowland.
The spread or pattern of something over an area e.g. ‘Describe the distribution of upland areas in the UK’
Being different from other places in a way that makes them recognisable e.g. upland areas of the UK have a very distinctive climate.
The (natural) action of being made e.g. ‘Explain the formation of a waterfall’
Anything carried out by people (as opposed to being natural) e.g. farming.
Describing a place that has had glaciers in the past e.g. the upland areas of Scotland, Wales and the Lake District.
Changed/having an impact on e.g. the climate and soils of upland areas have influenced the type of farming that takes place here.
The physical place where something exists e.g. ‘Describe the location of the River Tees’
The process of dealing with and controlling something e.g. coastal management schemes such as sea walls and rock armour have been used along the North Norfolk coast to reduce wave erosion.
Working e.g. longshore drift is in operation from east to west along the North Norfolk Coast.
People of the UK
A population with a large, and increasing, proportion of people in middle and old age.
A large urban (built-up) area resulting from several cities merging over time.
The movement of people out of urban areas into rural areas (countryside).
Demographic Transition Model
A theoretical model that shows how a population changes over time as a country develops.
People who move into a country from another to settle.
Goods and services that are bought by a country.
The basic structures and facilities needed for a society to function e.g. buildings, roads, power supply.
The movement of people from one place to another.
A cluster of modern industries located in the northern cities of the UK.
A term used to describe the differences between the richer south and the poorer north of UK.
The movement of people back into urban areas as these areas are regenerated and improved.
The growth of cities outwards as people move from central areas into the surrounding suburbs.
The exchange (buying and selling) of goods and services between countries.
The reason why something happens e.g. ‘Explain the causes of uneven development in the UK’
The results of something happening e.g. one of the consequences of an ageing population is that there is more demand for care homes.
The money people have to live on after their tax, pension contributions and mortgage/rent have been paid.
Having variety e.g. the UK has a very diverse population.
The state of having paid work. In the UK, most people work in the tertiary (service) sector of employment.
Relating to the whole world.
Manufactured products e.g. clothes, furniture, cars.
The rules and laws made by the government of a country.
The average age to which someone can expect to live. This varies by country; in the UK it is around 80 years.
How the population is made up as in % of young people and older people.
The making of products, usually in a factory.
The (non-tangible) things that people want and need e.g. education, healthcare, transport.
The difference between the value of a country’s imports and exports.
When the value of the imports is greater than that of the exports;
When the value of the exports is greater than that of the imports.
A large body of air with a consistent temperature and moisture content throughout.
The force exerted on the earth’s surface by the weight of the air.
The influence of large areas of land – the centre of continents have more extreme temperatures.
Removing sediment from a river bed in order to improve water flow.
The process of excessive nutrients building up in water sources, causing rapid growth plants which then use up the oxygen.
Fracking (Hydraulic Fracturing)
A controversial method for extracting gas and oil from shale rocks.
A boundary separating 2 air masses with different densities.
A warming trend associated with climate change.
A narrow band of very strong wind that circles the globe several km above the earth.
Imaginary lines drawn around the earth parallel to the equator and measured in degrees. Equator: 0o
Energy harvested from finite resources such as coal or oil.
North Atlantic Drift
A Warm ocean originating in the Caribbean, and brining warm water towards the UK.
The most frequent, or most common, wind direction.
Energy harvested from resources which are naturally replenished on a short timescale e.g. wind, solar.
A large artificial lake, created by damming a river, and used to store water for human use.
Supply and Demand
The amount of a product available (supply) and the amount needed or desired (demand)
Something that will last; will provide for the present without depleting supply for the future.
The process of moving water from an area of plentiful supply to an area of need, via canals or pipeline.
Relating to business e.g. most farming in the UK is commercial, i.e. it is run as a business to sell the products.
Use of something e.g. the UK’s energy consumption has risen steadily since the 1950s.
The part played by someone/something in bringing something about or causing something to happen e.g. ‘the unusually high rainfall made a significant contribution to the flooding of the Somerset Levels in 2014’
Much more than expected/a long way from the average e.g. ‘the flooding on the Somerset Levels was partly caused by the extreme weather conditions’
Something which may cause harm, such as flooding.
The increased use of machines to do the jobs people used to do e.g. ‘the mechanisation of farming has allowed more food to be produced more quickly.’
To change e.g. people have modified the natural environment in order to grow food.
Full of water e.g. ‘The moorland above the Somerset Levels was saturated by the prolonged rainfall.’
Unlike anything else/being the only one of its kind.
Easily attacked or harmed e.g. ‘The Somerset Levels are very vulnerable to flooding.’