History KS3 Vocab
Year 7 (400AD – 1500AD)
Roman Empire, Anglo-Saxons, Vikings, Norman Conquest, Medieval world, Wars of the Roses
Something which provides historical information.
Information used to create an argument about the past.
The origin of something – where something comes from (i.e. who made it?)
Someone that lived in the Rome or was a citizen of the Roman Empire.
The ruler of an Empire.
When a country or people rules over lots of others.
Someone that rules on behalf of someone else.
The armed forces of a country or people
The exchange of money and items between people.
Money collected by rulers from their people.
Things to do with money in a society.
Someone who is outside a society.
An attack from an enemy outside your country or area.
A people that invaded England from Germany in the 400s AD.
Raiders and invaders from Scandinavia from 800AD to 1100AD.
A people that lived in Northern France (Normandy) and invaded England in 1066.
Things to do with the Middle Ages (1000AD-1500AD)
A heavily fortified place where rulers/lords would live in with their soldiers.
A professional soldier that was given land by a lord to rule.
The king/queen of a country.
Someone who will inherit your lands and titles after you die.
A war between people of the same country.
A ranking of things.
A social hierarchy established by William the Conqueror in England.
What people pray and believe in.
The religion of Christians, revealed through Jesus Christ as the Son of God.
The religion of Muslims, revealed through Muhammad as the Prophet of Allah.
The head of the Christian church.
The leader of the Christian church in a country
A place where monks (men who dedicate their lives to God) live as a community with rules.
A place where nuns (women who dedicate their lives to God) live as a community with rules.
The buildings occupied by monks/nuns.
The Christian organisation/The building where Christian worship happens.
A Christian religious war against Muslims or other religions.
People belonging to an upper class in society with a high social rank.
A labourer (often in farming) that is of low social class.
An uprising by people in a country against their rulers.
A deadly disease that spreads quickly and kills large numbers of people.
Year 8 (1500AD – 1900AD)
The Reformation, The Tudors, English Civil War, Industrial Revolution, Enlightenment, British Empire, Transatlantic slavery, Victorian England
A religious movement in the 1500s following the ideas of Martin Luther. The creation of the Protestant Church and the split from the Catholic Church.
A Christian who follows a Church separate from the Catholic one.
A Christian who follows the Catholic Church (with the Pope as the leader of the Church).
To be thrown out of the Catholic Church.
A ruler / a King or a Queen.
In England, a group of people who represent the rest of the country (elected).
A war between people of the same country.
A supernatural belief (irrational, not based on science).
A forcible overthrow of a government in favour of a new system.
A movement based on new philosophies in the 17th and 18th centuries promoting reason and individualism rather than tradition and religion.
When raw materials are processed and made into objects. To do with manufacturing and factories.
To do with farming / growing food.
A building where goods are made, mainly by machines.
Using scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.
When a country or people rules over lots of others.
An area controlled by an Empire that is not in its home territory.
A person who is forced to work for and obey, without pay and often no rights.
A place where the poor receive a place to sleep and some food in exchange for hard manual work.
A system of ordering society where people are divided based on their economic status.
The social group with the highest status, often the aristocracy.
The social group which includes educated professionals / businesspeople and their families.
The social group with the lowest status in society. Often have labour jobs.
An estate on which crops such as coffee, sugar and tobacco are grown.
The process of being set free from legal, social or political restrictions.
The action of getting rid of a system or practice (like slavery).
Year 9 (1900AD – 2000AD)
The murder of someone.
When a country or people rules over lots of others.
Areas controlled by an Empire across the world.
The ruler (king / queen) of a Kingdom.
The belief in having a strong military in your country.
The belief that your country is the best / superior to others.
When two or more countries join together as a team to protect each other or attack another country.
The belief in having a strong Empire.
A war or issue between two countries / people.
A war that involves many countries around the world together.
A system of open-air tunnels dug in the ground used in World War 1 as protection by the soldiers.
Big guns / cannons that are used to send bombs over large distances.
A vehicle that is heavily armoured and can attack enemy soldiers. They use caterpillar wheels to cross difficult terrain.
A political and economic belief about how to run a society. Communists believe that societies should not have a social hierarchy and all resources in a country should belong to all of society, and not just a few wealthy people. The government’s role is to organise society and make sure private property doesn’t exist or is limited.
An economic belief about how to run a country’s economy. Capitalists believe that the best way to run an economy is to allow private property and let the free market control the production of goods and services.
A far-right political belief is, authoritarian and ultranationalist, characterized by a dictatorial leader that promotes one way of thinking, a hatred of foreigners or people that are different to the majority in a country. Fascist countries often have a big emphasis on their military strength.
A member of the far-right ideology promoted by Hitler and his government before and during World War 2. The ideas promote a hatred of other human ‘races’ and calls for the murder of many seen as inferior. Since the end of the war, people who follow their ideas are called Neo-Nazis.
A system of government elected by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. It promotes individual rights such as freedom of speech.
A country ruled by a dictator who has total power over the people in it.
The right to vote.
A dislike, hostility, or unjust behaviour deriving from preconceived and unfounded opinions towards a group of people.
Taking over an area or country, often by force.
The action or process of appeasing – trying to make someone calmer or more reasonable.
The systematic murder of a targeted group of people by a group or a government.
The systematic murder of Jewish people by the Nazis during World War 2 where 6 million lost their lives. Often called the Shoah (‘catastrophe’ in Hebrew).
The process of freeing a people or country from an Empire and its cultural or social influence.
The long-term impact of an event or thing.
The rights of people in a country to political and social freedom and equality.
A social system in which black and other non-white people are denied access to the same rights, opportunities, and facilities as white people.
A movement of people from one place to another for various reasons (political, economic, social…).
Medicine Through Time
The removal of a limb by surgery.
A drug or drugs given to produce unconsciousness before and during surgery.
The science of understanding the structure and make-up of the body.
A group of drugs used to treat infections caused by bacteria, e.g. penicillin.
The prevention of infection by stopping the growth of bacteria by the use of antiseptics.
Chemicals used to destroy bacteria and prevent infection.
A pharmacist or chemist.
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
The painful swelling of joints.
The study of the planets and how they might influence the lives of people.
Bacterium (pl. Bacteria):
A ball of indigestible material found in goats’ stomachs.
A scientist who studies the make-up of living things.
A phrase used in the Middle Ages to describe bubonic plague. (The ‘blackness’ was caused by bleeding under the skin. Over 50 per cent of all cases were fatal.)
The treatment of opening a vein or applying leeches to draw blood from the patient. Also means the loss of blood caused by damage to the blood vessels.
Black swellings in armpits and groin that were symptoms of the Black Death.
Using a hot iron to burn body tissue. This seals a wound and stops bleeding.
A place for collecting and storing sewage.
People pretending to have a skill or knowledge that they don’t really have.
Treatment of a disease such as cancer by the use of chemicals.
Painful swellings on feet and hands caused by exposure to cold and wet.
A liquid whose vapour acts as an anaesthetic and produces unconsciousness.
Thread-like structures in the cells of the body that contain genetic information.
Tuberculosis which was observed as the wasting away of the body.
The passing of disease from one person to another.
Something that is infected.
An enclosed area of housing, often with little daylight and heavily over-populated.
The growth of micro-organisms in the laboratory.
A symptom of a disease; frequent, fluid bowel movements.
The cutting up and examination of a body.
Deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that genes are made of. See Gene.
A severe infection causing frequent, fluid bowel movements.
An instrument used to view inside the body.
Waste material from the stomach and digestive system.
Gangrene (Gas gangrene):
The infection of dead tissue causing, in the case of gas gangrene, foul smelling gas.
Part of a cell that determines how our bodies look and work. Genes are passed from parents to children.
The investigation of genes and how they can be used to change how the body works.
A micro-organism that causes disease.
The theory that germs cause disease, often by infection through the air.
The people controlling NHS health care in the regions.
A medicine made up from a mixture of plants, often containing beneficial ingredients.
Surgery using the most modern techniques, including computers, new skills and new drugs.
The principles by which doctors work, for the best health of the patient and to do no harm, named after Hippocrates who wrote it.
The Ancient Greeks believed the body contained four humours of liquid – blood, phlegm, black bile and yellow bile.
Protected against a disease.
The process of giving protection from disease through the body’s own immune system.
Protection against disease through the body’s own defences or immune system.
A cut made with a knife during surgery.
The formation of disease-causing germs or micro-organisms.
A place where the sick are treated, a hospital.
Putting a low dose of a disease into the body to help it fight against a more serious attack of the disease.
Belief that governments should not interfere in people’s lives. It prevented public health schemes getting underway in the nineteenth century.
Blood-sucking worms used to drain blood from a wound.
Someone suffering from leprosy, an infection that causes damage to the nerves and skin.
Tough elastic tissue that holds joints of the body together.
An old-fashioned word for someone who is insane.
An illness that is not serious.
Concerning motherhood and looking after children.
A person appointed to look after the public health of an area.
Part of the Theory of Four Humours, brought on by excess of gloominess.
Smells from decomposing material that were believed to cause disease.
Another name for a micro-organism.
A tiny single-celled living organism too small to be seen by the naked eye. Disease-causing micro-organisms are called bacteria.
A medicine usually sold for a profit. In the nineteenth century patent medicines were often made from a mix of ingredients that had no medical benefits. They were also known as ‘cure-alls’.
The first antibiotic drug produced from the mould penicillium to treat infections.
A doctor of medicine who trained at university.
The study of how the body works.
A serious infectious disease spread to humans by fleas from rats and mice.
The inflammation of the lungs due to an infection.
Medical judgement about the probable course and result of a disease.
Refers to the well-being of the whole community.
A pale yellow or green fluid found where there is an infection in the body.
A person who falsely claims to have medical ability or qualifications.
Treatment of a disease such as cancer by the use of radium.
A metallic chemical element discovered by Marie Curie in 1898 (see radiotherapy).
A drug or treatment that cures or controls the symptoms of a disease.
A disease caused by a poor diet resulting in a misshapen skeleton.
A place where people who are chronically (very) ill can be cared for.
A tendon or fibrous cord that joins a muscle to a bone.
The theory that decaying matter turns into germs.
To destroy all living micro-organisms from surfaces and surgical instruments, e.g. on a scalpel before an operation.
An antibacterial drug used to treat bronchitis and pneumonia.
Bacteria that have developed immunity to treatment by antibiotics or methods of destroying them by cleaning.
Something that cannot be given an ordinary explanation.
An unreasonable belief based on ignorance and sometimes fear.
The formation and/or discharge of pus.
The closing of a cut or wound by the use of stitches (sutures).
A sexually-transmitted disease that was common from the late fifteenth century until the introduction of penicillin.
The treatment of either a physical or mental disease.
The use of blood given by one person to another when a patient has suffered severe blood loss.
A swelling caused by cells reproducing at an increased rate/an abnormal growth of cells that may or may not be cancerous.
An open sore on the skin.
Food or drink that has not been pasteurised. Pasteurisation is a process of heating that destroys harmful bacterial.
Diagnosing illness by examining the patient’s urine.
The injection into the body of killed or weakened organisms to give the body resistance against disease.
A tiny micro-organism, smaller than bacteria, responsible for infections such as colds, flu, polio and chicken pox.
A person believed to be skilled in magic or local customs.
A person who practises magic and is believed to have dealings with evil spirits.
An infestation where worms live as parasites in the human body.