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Food and Nutrition KS3 Vocab


The nutrients are taken into the body (absorbed) and are mainly carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change.


Air is trapped in a mixture to make it lighter.

Al dente

Firm to the bite; a description of the texture of correctly cooked pasta.


A substance or food that may cause an allergic reaction.

Allergic reaction

Where the body reacts suddenly and often seriously to certain foods.

Amino acids

The building blocks of protein.




Microscopic living organisms, which are single-celled and can be found everywhere.


Placing food in dry heat in a hot oven, which cooks the food through.

Baking powder

A chemical raising agent used when making cakes.

Balanced diet

A diet that contains all the nutrients in the correct amounts.

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The rate at which a person uses energy when resting.


Seeds from edible plants.


Liquids are beaten and air bubbles are trapped in the liquid.

Best before date

A date on foods that keep for a longer time, such as biscuits or canned foods.

Bicarbonate of soda

A chemical raising agent used in strong-flavoured cakes.

Binary fission

How each bacterium reproduces by splitting in two.


To bring the ingredients in a mixture together using a binding ingredient, such as egg.


To mix two or more ingredients together, by hand, a hand blender (liquidiser) or food processor.


A piece of electrical equipment that can cut up food and reduce it to a pulp.


Cooking in liquid at boiling point (100oC).


A mixture of flour, yeast, sugar, salt and liquid, which is made into a dough and baked.


A large serrated-edged knife used to slice bread, cakes and pastries.


A particular amount of money put aside to spend on something.


The process of sugar melting and changing colour when heated.


One of the five nutrients.  A macronutrient.


Cultivated grasses with grains which are used as a food source.


A round flat bread made from wheat flour.

Chemical raising agents

Raising agents that produce carbon dioxide when they are heated with a liquid.


A fatty substance which is needed for the normal functioning of the body.

Chorleywood bread process

80 per cent of bread is commercially made using this method of high-speed mixing.

Choux pastry

A light, crisp and hollow pastry.


When protein sets.


To add another ingredient to create an attractive finish or a protective layer when cooking.

Coeliac disease

An intolerance to gluten found in cereals.

Compost heap

A pile of garden and organic kitchen refuse which decomposes to produce compost.


Heat transfers through solid and liquid materials.

Connective tissue

Tissue that connects, supports, binds or separates other tissues or organs.


When stools are dry and hard to pass.


Transferring an unwanted substance from one item to another, such as bacteria from raw to cooked meat.


Heat travels through air or water.

Convection currents

The movement of heat in air or water as heat rises to the surface and cooler air/water falls to the bottom.

Cooks’ knife

A large knife with a deep blade used for cutting, chopping, slicing and dicing.


A think fruit puree, used as a sauce.


The process of beating fat and sugar together, which traps tiny air bubbles into the mixture.


A style of cooking of a particular country or region.

Curds and whey

The solid and liquid produced from milk during cheese-making.


Knives, forks and spoons.


A decoration on sweet food (e.g. piped cream, a dusting of icing sugar).

Deep fat frying

Cooking by covering food in very hot oil.


Protein changes shape.


Passing looser or more frequent stools than is normal for you.


The foods you choose to eat.

Dietary fibre

A complex sugar found in the cell walls of plants.

Digestive system

Parts of the body where food Is broken down to provide nutrients.


When bacteria are inactive and cannot grow at all.


A mixture of dry ingredients and liquid that is mixed, kneaded, shaped and then baked.


When you do the preparation for one dish and then part of another dish before the first dish is finished.

Dry heat

Heating without fat or water, e.g. dry frying, grilling, using a blow torch, baking.

Durum wheat flour

The flour used to make pasta, which is high in protein.

Energy needs

The average amount of food energy needed by individuals, usually measured in kilocalories (kcal).


The air, land and water where people live.

Essential amino acids

Amino acids your body needs as it can’t make them by itself.

Extraction rate

The percentage of the wheat grain found in the flour.

Fat-soluble vitamins

These are vitamins A, D, E and K.


The process in which yeast produces the gas carbon dioxide.


Nutrient food in the cell walls of cereals grains.  It is needed for the digestive system to remain healthy and function properly.


Cutting the chicken breast across into thinner slices.

Flaky pastry

A light, crisp, pastry made up of lots of layers.

Floury potato

When cooked, the cells in the potato separate, causing it to fall apart.


Using a spatula or spoon to fold a light ingredient (such as egg whites) into a heavier ingredient.  Layers of air are trapped between the layers of pastry when the pastry I folded.  During baking, the air expands between the layers and lifts the pastry.

Folic acid

One of the B group vitamins.

Food intolerance

A reaction to food.

Food miles

The distance food travels from farm to fork.

Food poisoning

An illness caused by eating contaminated food.

Food-poisoning bacteria

Micro-organisms in food which can cause illness.

Food processor

A piece of electrical equipment used to prepare a variety of foods, e.g. slice and grate vegetables.

Free range farming

A method of farming where animals have access to outdoor space.

Free sugar (added sugar)

Sugars added to food (e.g. sugar, syrup and honey).

Fruit sugar

Natural sugars contained in the cell walls of plant foods.


A decoration on savoury food (e.g. a lemon wedge, sliced tomato).

Gas-in-liquid foam

Liquid forms a thin film around each air bubble.


Protein made by boiling animal bones, used for setting food.


The name of the process for when starch granules are mixed with a liquid and heated; they swell and break open, causing the liquid to thicken.


When a mixture is thickened by starch, and then sets when it is chilled.


An excess or oversupply (e.g. of apples in the autumn).


Is formed when water is added to flour and mixed.


Potato dough.


To make coarse or fine threads by rubbing over side of grater.


Food cooked under a direct heat.

Hand-held mixer

Electrical equipment that mixes, whisks or beats small quantities of food.

Health conditions

Different health conditions affect what you should eat more or less of.  For example, in pregnancy, women need extra energy just for the last three months.

Healthy diet

A diet that is low in fat, salt and sugar, and high in fibre.

Heart disease

A build-up of fatty deposits in the coronary arteries.

Hedonic ranking

A preference test which finds out how much people like or dislike a product.

High biological value (HBV)

Protein foods which contain all of the essential amino acids.

High-risk foods

Ready-to-eat moist foods, usually high in protein.


The top part of a cooker, with hotplates or burners.

Intensive farming

A method of farming aimed at increasing the amount of food produced.


To squeeze the juice from fruit or vegetables.


Another name for a seed.

Kilocalories (kcal)

A unit of measurement for energy in food.

Knock back

Knocking out the air and kneading the dough again.

Lactating women

Women who are breastfeeding their babies.

Lactic acid

Lactose in milk is converted into this by bacteria in the starter culture.


The name of the sugar in milk.

Lactose intolerance

When someone cannot digest lactose (milk sugar).


To make up a dish with different ingredients placed one on top of another.

Lean meat

Meat with a lower fat content.

Low biological value (LBV)

Protein foods which are missing one or more essential amino acid.


Nutrients needed by the body in large amounts – protein, fat and carbohydrate.


To keep something working.


Required by law.


To make food soft.

Mechanical raising agents

The incorporation of air or steam to make mixtures rise.

Micro-filtered milk

Milk is filtered and then heated to 72oC for 15 seconds.


Nutrients needed by the body in smaller amounts – vitamins and minerals.

Microwave oven

A type of cooking using electromagnetic waves which cause water molecules in the food to vibrate and heat up.


The process of grinding down the wheat grain.

Mise en place

Preparation before starting to cook.


The process of combining two or more ingredients to become one.


How a food product feels in the mouth.

Natural fertiliser

A natural source of nutrients for plants which helps them to grow.


Feeling sick.

Non-essential amino acids

Amino acids that your body can make by itself.


The components which make up food.

Nutritional analysis

How to find out the types and amounts of nutrients in a recipe or diet.


Dry edible kernels within a shell.


Oats are ground into either coarse, medium and fine grades of oatmeal.


Being very overweight, carrying more body fat than is healthy.

Oily fish

Fish that have oil dispersed throughout the flesh.

Paired preference test

Sensory testing used to find out which sample a tester prefers.


An Italian dessert made with cream and gelatine.

Paring knife/vegetable knife

A small knife mainly used for slicing and dicing.

Pasteurised milk

Milk is heated to 72oC for 15 seconds.


A mixture of flour, fat and liquid, which is made into a dough.


A meringue dessert decorated with whipped cream and fruit.


To remove the thin layer of skin of fruit and vegetables.


Insects or animals which may contaminate food.


To press a soft food through a piping bad fitted with a shaped nozzle.


Cooking very gently in hot water.


The process when milling white rice: the outer husk is removed and then the bran and germ.


A process which allows fruit to last for longer.

Primary processing

Preparing a raw food for sale or cooking.

Profiling test (star profile)

A test used to obtain a detailed description of a food product.

Protein alternatives

Sources of protein other than meat that are suitable for vegetarians.

Protein complementation

When two LBV protein foods are combined to form HBV protein.


Leaving dough to rise.


Peas, beans and lentils.


Gives off heat.


Heat rays directly heat food.

Raising agents

Substances added to mixtures to make them rise.

Ranking test

A test that is used to measure how strong is a specific sensory property in a number of samples.

Rating test

A test that allows people to rate the extent to which they either like or dislike one aspect in similar food products.


Simmering a liquid over heat until it thickens.

Reference intake (RI)

A guide to the maximum amount of fat, saturates, sugar and salt an adult is recommended to eat each day.


This contains an enzyme that breaks down the milk into curds and whey.


When animals and plants make more of their own kind.


Cooking in the oven in hot fat.


To spread out or flatten.

Rolled oats

Oats are rolled into flakes after being partly cooked by steam.  This makes the oats easier to cook.


A mixture of melted fat and flour, which is used as the base of a sauce.

Rubber gloves

Waterproof gloves which protect your hands when washing up with hot soapy water.

Rubbing in

A technique in which fat is rubbed into flour and traps air in the mixture.

Saturated fats

Usually from animal sources; can be harmful to health.


A well-flavoured liquid which has been thickened.

Seasonal foods

Foods that are only available at certain times of the year.


Salt, pepper, herbs or spices added to food to make it taste better.

Secondary processing

Changing primary food products into other types of products.

Self-raising flour

A type of flour that has baking powder added to it during production.

Sensory descriptors

Words to describe the appearance, taste and texture of the food.

Sensory evaluation

Judging food based on appearance, taste, aroma and texture.


The right or best order to carry out a series of steps to make a dish.

Shallow frying

Cooking food in a small amount of fat in a shallow frying pan.


Fish protected by a hard shell.


When fats give biscuits and pastry a crumbly texture.


To slice into long thin strips.


Putting flour through a sieve to trap air between the flour particles.


Cooking just below boiling point.


A long metal or wooden stick used to secure food during cooking.

Stable foam

A lasting foam; the air stays trapped in the mixture until it is baked.


A complex sugar (e.g. potatoes, rice and bread are high in starch).

Starter culture

Harmless bacteria used to thicken cheese and yoghurt.


Cooking in the steam coming from boiling water.

Sterilised milk

Milk is heated to 110-130oC for 10 to 30 minutes.

Stiff peak stage

This is when egg whites are whisked and will stand in a peak with a sharp tip, and not collapse.

Stir frying

Cooking small pieces of food quickly in a small amount of oil over a hot heat.


Simple sugars (e.g. glucose) and double sugars (e.g. sucrose).


Meets the needs of the present, without making it difficult for future generations to meet their own needs.


Fish, meat or chicken marinated in yoghurt and spices and then cooked.

Target groups

The group you are planning meals for.

Taste buds

Nerve endings on the tongue that tell the brain if a food is sweet, sour, bitter or salty.

Temperature probe

A device with a metal spike which takes the temperature of food.


A cooking process which breaks down tough muscle tissue fibres.

Textured vegetable protein (TVP)

Mince and chunks developed from the soya bean.

Time plan

A step-by-step plan you follow to ensure your dish turns out well and you finish on time at the end of the lesson.


An Italian trifle.


Bean curd made from soya milk.

Traffic light food label

A colour-coded food label which helps you to choose healthy foods.

Triangle test

A test in which the tester identifies the ‘odd one out’ from three samples, two of which are the same.


Part of the plant attached to the roots below the ground.

Type 2 diabetes

A condition where the body’s sugar levels cannot be controlled properly.

Ultra-heat treatment (UHT) milk

Milk is heated to 135oC for 1 second.


Is a savoury taste.

Unsaturated fats

Usually from plant sources; can be good for health.

Use-by date

A date on perishable foods (they can go off quickly), telling you which date the food should be used by.


Being sick.

Water-soluble vitamins

Vitamin B group and vitamin C dissolve in water and are destroyed by heat.

Waxy potato

A potato that is dense, firm and holds it shape when cooked.


Eggs or egg whites are whisked with sugar to trap air bubbles in the egg white.

White fish

Fish that have white flesh.


The whole grain is crushed and often made into flour, e.g. wheat flour.


A filling wrapped in soft flat bread such as a tortillas or pitta.


A single-celled plant fungus, and a biological raising agent which needs time, food, warmth and liquid to grow and ferment.

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