# Maths Vocab

### Algebra

A branch of mathematics that substitutes numbers for letters

### Average

The sums of data divided by the number of items in the data will give an average

### Acute Angle

An angle less than 90°

### Area

The amount of space inside the boundary of a flat shape (2- dimensional) object

### Angle

An angle is a combination of two rays (half-lines) with a common endpoint

### Approximate

An Approximation is close to a value, but not completely accurate or exact

### Asymmetrical

A shape which has no lines of symmetry

### Arc

Part of the circumference (edge) of a circle

### Average

A value to best represent a set of data. There are three type of average – the mean, the median and the mode

### Axis

An axis is one of the lines used to locate a point in a coordinate system

### Bearing

A three digit angle measured from north in a clockwise direction

### BIDMAS

The order in which calculations should be carried out :(B)rackets (I)ndices (D)ivision (M)ultiplication (A)ddition (S)ubtraction

### Brackets

A pair of symbols used to enclose sections of a mathematical expression

### Bisect

To divide an angle or shape exactly in half.

### Calculate

To work out an answer, usually by adding, dividing, subtracting or adding.

### Centilitre (cl)

A metric unit of volume equal to one hundredth of a litre.

### Coefficient

The number in front of an algebraic symbol. The coefficient of 6x is 6.

### Constant

A letter or symbol whose value always stays the same. Example: in “x + 6 = 8”, 6 and 8 are constants x is variable.

### Congruent

Two shapes are congruent when you can Turn, Flip and/or Slide one so it fits exactly on the other.

### Centimetre (cm)

A measure of distance. 1 centimetre = 10 millimetres. (1 cm = 10 mm). 100 centimetres = 1 metre. (100 cm = 1 m).

### Chord

A straight line drawn from one point on the edge of a circle to another.

### Circumference

The perimeter, around, of a circle.

### Credit

To add money or tokens. For example, I had £500 credited to my bank account.

### Cross section

The end section created when you slice a 3D shape along its length.

### Cube number

The product when an integer is multiplied by itself three times. For example 2 cubed = 2 x 2 x 2 = 16

### Cuboid

A 3D shape with all sides made from rectangles. Like a cereal box.

### Cumulative frequency

A running total of the frequencies, added up as you go along

### Denominator

The Downstairs part of a fraction (bottom) part of a fraction.

### Decagon

A ten sided polygon.

### Debit

To take money out from a bank account. For example, £350 was debited from my account.

### Decimal

Not a whole number or integer. For example, 3.6 or 0.235.

### Day

A time period of 24 hours. There are 7 days in a week.

### Decrease

To make an amount smaller.

### Diameter

The distance across a circle which passes through the centre.

### Difference

Subtract the smaller value from the larger value to find the difference between two numbers.

### Distance

How far away an object is. For example, it is a distance of 5 miles to the shopping centre from

### Distribution

How data is shared or spread out.

### Equal

Used to show two quantities have the same value.

### Equation

Two expressions which have the same value, separated by an ‘=’ sign. E.g. 2y = 6+ y

### Estimate

Roughly calculate or judge the value, number, quantity, or extent of a quantity.

### Even number

Any number which is a multiple of 2. Even numbers always end in 2, 4, 6, 8 or 0.

### Expand

To multiply out brackets in an expression. For example, 2(4x + 10) = 8x + 20

### Equilateral triangle

A triangle with all sides and angles the same size.

### Expression

Numbers, symbols and operators (such as + and ×) grouped together that show the value of something. Example: 2×3 is an expression

### Formula

An equation used to describe a relationship between two or more variables.

### Factorise

To put an expression into brackets by taking out a common factor. For example, 2y+6 = 2(y+3)

### Figures

Words as numbers. For example, one thousand and seventy in figures is 1070.

### Factor

A number that divides (Fits) into another number exactly. E.g. 5 is a factor of 20.

### Frequency

How many often something happens.

### Frequency density

The frequency divided by the class width.

### Gradient

How steep a line is. Found by Rise divided by Run.

### Gram (g)

A measure of mass. 1 gram = 1000 milligrams. (1 g = 1000 mg)

### HCF

The Highest Common Factor.

### Heptagon

A seven sided polygon.

### Hexagon

A six sided polygon.

### Histogram

A diagram drawn with rectangles where the area is proportional to the frequency and the width is equal to the class interval.

### Hypotenuse

The longest side on a right angled triangle.

### Increase

To make an amount larger.

### Indices

Another name for powers such as ² or ³.

### Integer

A whole number.

### Inter-quartile range (IQR)

The difference between the upper and lower quartile.

### Irrational

A decimal which is never ending. It must also not be a recurring decimal.

### Justify

This just means that you have to explain step by step.

### Kilogram (Kg)

A measure of mass. 1 kilogram = 1000 grams. (1 kg = 1000 g)

### Kilometre (Km)

A measure of distance. 1 kilometre = 1000 metres. (1 km = 1000 m)

### LCM

Stands for ‘lowest common multiple’. It is the smallest multiple common to a set of numbers. E.g. The LCM of 3 and 4 is 12.

### Litre (l)

A measure of volume. 1 litre = 100 centilitres (1 l = 100 cl). 1 litre = 1000 millilitres (1l = 1000 ml).

### Loci

The plural of locus.

### Locus

A collection of points which are the same distance from another point or line.

### Lower range

The smallest value in a set of data.

### Mean

A type of average found by adding up a list of numbers and dividing by how many numbers are in the list.

### Median

The middle value when a list of numbers is put in order from smallest to largest. A type of average.

### Metre (m)

A measure of distance. 1 metre = 100 centimetres. (1 m = 1000 cm).

### Millilitre (ml)

A measure of volume. 10 millimetres = 1 centilitre (10 ml = 1 cl). 1000 millilitres = 1 litre (1000 ml = 1 l).

### Millimetre (mm)

A measure of distance. 10 millimetres = 1 centimetre. (10 mm = 1 cm).

### Modal

Same as mode, just another word for it!

### Mode

The most common value. For example, 5, 6, 7,7, 4, 7, 3. This most common value is 7.

### Month

Each of the twelve named periods into which a year is divided – from January to December.

### Multiple

Found at the end of the times table. For example 6 x 3 = 18. So 18 is the multiple.

### Natural number

A number that occurs commonly and obviously in nature. As such, it is a whole, non-negative number.

### Negative

A value less than zero such as -3, -10

### Nonagon

A nine sided polygon.

### Numerator

The North part of a fractions! The top part of a fraction.

### Obtuse angle

An angle between 90 and 180.

### Octagon

An eight sided polygon.

### Odd number

A number that is not a multiple of 2. Odd numbers always end in 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9.

### Operation

An operation is an action or procedure which produces a new value. For example, addition, subtraction, division and multiplication are all operations.

### Parallel

Two or more lines which are always the same distance apart.

### Parallelogram

A quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides.

### Pentagon

A five sided polygon.

### Perimeter

The distance around a shape.

### Perpendicular

Two or more lines which meet at right angles.

### Pi (Π)

An irrational constant used when calculating the area and circumference of circles. It is approximately equal to 3.14.

### Polygon

A many-sided figure, with sides that are line segments. Examples are, triangles, pentagon and hexagon.

### Positive number

A number greater than zero.

### Prime

A number which has exactly two factors. The number one and itself. Such as 5, 13, 23

### Prism

A 3D shape with the same cross section all along its length.

### Probability

A measure of how likely an event is to occur.

### Product

The answer when two values are multiplied together.

### Quadratic equation

Is an equation with the highest power being a 2. For example, y = x^2 + 6x + 10.

### Quadrilateral

A four sided polygon.

### Radius

The distance from the centre of a circle to its circumference.

### Random sampling

A method of choosing people at random for a survey.

### Range

The largest number take away the smallest value in a set of data.

### Rational

A decimal number which ends or is recurring.

### Reciprocal

The reciprocal of any number is 1 divided by the number. E.g. the reciprocal of 3 is 1/3, the reciprocal of 3/4 is 4/3.

### Recurring

A decimal number that has digits that repeat forever. Examples: 1/3 = 0.333… 1/7 = 0.142857142857…

### Reflex angle

An angle greater than 180.

### Regular

A shape with all sides and angles the same size.

### Remainder

In mathematics, the remainder is the amount “left over” after performing some computation. 16/7 = 2 remainder 2 =

### Right angle

An angle of 90.

### Rotation

To turn a shape using an angle, direction and centre of rotation.

### Round

To reduce the amount of significant figures or decimal places a number has. For example £178 rounded to the nearest £10 is £180.

### Scale factor

How many times larger or smaller an enlarged shape will be.

### Segment

An area of a circle enclosed by a chord.

### Sequence

A list of numbers which follows a pattern. For example 5, 7, 9, 11, …

### Simplify

Simplify means to make simpler by cancellation of common factors, regrouping of terms in the same variable

### Solid

A 3D shape.

### Solve

To find the missing value in an equation.

### Speed

How fast an object is moving. Average speed = Total distance divided by time taken.

### Square number

The product when an integer is multiplied by itself. For example, 2×2 =4, 3×3 =6

### Sum

The answer when two or more values are added together.

### Surface area

To total area of all sides on a 3D shape.

### Symmetrical

A shape which has at least one line of symmetry.

### Tally

Tally marks are a quick way of keeping track of numbers in groups of five.

### Tangent

A straight line that just touches a point on a curve. A tangent to a circle is perpendicular to the radius which meets the tangent.

### Term

A number, variable or combination of both which forms part of an expression.

### Transformation

The name for reflections, rotations, translations and enlargements.

### Translation

To move a shape from one position to another by sliding in the x-axis followed by the y-axis.

### Trapezium

A quadrilateral with one pair of parallel sides.

### Tree diagram

A method of solving probability questions by listing all the outcomes of an event in what looks like tree branches.

### Triangle

A three sided polygon.

### Triangular number

A sequence of numbers generated by adding one more than was added to find the previous term. For example, 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, 21, …

### Units

A quantity used to describe a measurement. Examples are kilograms and metres.

### Upper range

The largest value in a set of data.

### Value

A numerical amount or quantity.

### Variable

A letter which we don’t know the value of.

### Volume

The amount an object can hold. E.g. a bottle of water can have a volume of 2 litres.

### Week

A time period of 7 days. 168 hours!

### Wide

Used to describe the width of something

### Width

The measurement or extent of something from side to side

### X-Axis

The horizontal axis on a graph. The line going across the page.

### Y-Axis

The vertical axis on a graph. The line going from top to bottom.

### Y-Intercept

The value of the y-coordinate when a graph crosses the y-axis.

### Year

The time taken by the earth to make one revolution around the sun. 365 days starting in January.

### Z-Axis

Represents the depth of an object when working with 3D coordinates.