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Revision Guide – Physical Education

SUBJECT: Physical Education
LENGTH OF PAPERS: 75 minutes per paper
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Black pen, calculator and ruler.

Topics to be revised

Paper 1: The Human Body and Movement in Physical Activity and Sport
Applied Physiology and Anatomy

The structure and functions of the musculoskeletal system

  • Bones (functions and structure of the skeletal system/ structure of a synovial joint)
  • Muscles in the body
  • Types of movements (actions)

The structure and functions of the cardio-respiratory system

  • Pathway of air
  • Gaseous exchange
  • Mechanics of breathing
  • Interpreting a spirometer trace
  • Blood vessels including vasodilation and vasoconstriction
  • Structure of the heart
  • Cardiac cycle and the pathway of blood
  • Cardiac output

Anaerobic and aerobic exercise

  • Understanding the terms aerobic exercise
  • Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)/oxygen debt
  • The recovery process (cool-down ice bath, massage and diet)

The short and long-term effects of exercise

  • Immediate effects of exercise (during exercise)
  • Short-term effects of exercise (24 to 36 hours after exercise)
  • Long-term effects of exercise (months and years of exercising)
  • Warm up and cool down

Movement Analysis
Lever systems

  • First, second and third class lever systems
  • Mechanical advantage

Planes and axis of movement

  • Relevant planes (frontal, transverse, sagittal) and axes (longitudinal, transverse, sagittal)

Physical Training

  • Health and fitness
  • The relationship between health and fitness
  • The components of fitness
  • Reasons for and limitations of fitness testing
  • Measuring the components of fitness
  • Demonstration of how data is collected for fitness testing
  • The principles of training and overload
  • Types of training
  • Specific training techniques – high altitude training as a form of aerobic training
  • Identification of the advantages and disadvantages (the effects on the body) of training types linked to specific aims
  • Calculating intensities to optimise training effectiveness
  • Considerations to prevent injury
  • Seasonal aspects

Paper 2: Socio-cultural Influences and well-being in physical activity and sport
Sports Psychology

  • Classification of skills (basic/complex, open/closed)
  • Definitions of types of goals
  • The use of goal setting and SMART targets to improve and/or optimize performance
  • Basic information processing model
  • Guidance and feedback on performance
  • Mental preparation for performance

Socio-cultural influences

  • Engagement patters of different social groups and the factors affecting participation
  • Commercialisation of physical activity and sport
  • Sponsorship and the media
  • Positive and negative impacts of technology
  • Ethical and socio-cultural issues in physical activity and sport
  • Prohibited substances
  • Prohibited methods (blood doping)
  • Drugs subject to certain restrictions (beta blockers)
  • Performance enhancing drugs
  • Spectator behaviour

Health, fitness and well-being

  • Physical, emotional and social health, fitness and well-being
  • The consequences of a sedentary lifestyle
  • Obesity
  • Somatotypes
  • Energy use
  • Nutrition – reasons for having a balanced diet
  • Nutrition – the role of carbohydrates, fat, protein, vitamins and minerals
  • Hydration/dehydration

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