Revision Guide – Geography

SUBJECT: Geography
EXAM BOARD AND CODE: OCR J383
NUMBER OF PAPERS: 3
LENGTH OF PAPERS:
Length of Paper 1: 60 minutes (32.4% – 60 marks)
Length of Paper 2: 60 minutes (32.4% – 60 marks)
Length of Paper 3: 80 minutes  (35.2% – 80 marks)
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Black pen (and spare), pencil, eraser, ruler, calculator
WEBSITE LINK: http://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/207306-specification-accredited-gcse-geography-a-j383.pdf


Topics to be revised

J383/01 Unit 1 – Living in the UK today

Landscapes of the UK

Distinctive Characteristics of UK Landscapes

  • I know where areas of upland, lowland and glaciated landscapes are in the UK
  • I can describe the geology, climate and human activity in upland areas of the UK
  • I can describe the geology, climate and human activity in lowland areas of the UK
  • I can describe the geology, climate and human activity in glaciated areas of the UK

Geomorphic processes that shape the land  

  • I can define mechanical, chemical and biological weathering
  • I can define mass movement including sliding and slumping
  • I can define different types of erosion including abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and solution
  • I can define different types of transportation including traction, saltation, suspension and solution
  • I can define deposition

Rivers and their changing landforms with distance from their source within a river basin

  • I can explain the formation of waterfalls and gorges
  • I can explain the formation of V-shaped valleys
  • I can explain the formation of floodplains and levees
  • I can explain the formation of meanders and ox-bow lakes

Dynamic Landscapes – CASE STUDY –

  • I can describe the geomorphic processes operating at different scales on the River
  • I can explain how geomorphic processes are influenced by geology and climate
  • I can describe the landforms and features associated
  • I can explain how human activity, including management, works in combination with geomorphic processes to impact the landscape

Landforms of the coastal landscape

  • I can explain the formation of headlands, bays and beaches
  • I can explain the formation of caves, arches and stacks
  • I can explain the formation of spits

 Dynamic Landscapes – CASE STUDY

  • I can describe the geomorphic processes operating at different scales
  • I can explain how geomorphic processes are influenced by geology and climate
  • I can describe the landforms and features associated
  • I can explain how human activity, including management, works in combination with geomorphic processes to impact the landscape

People of the UK

The UK is connected to many other countries and places

  • I know where the UK’s major trading partners are
  • I can describe what our principal exports are and where they go
  • I can describe what our principal imports are and where they come from

The UK is a diverse and unequal society which has geographical patterns

  • I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of employment
  • I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of average income
  • I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of life expectancy
  • I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of educational attainment
  • I can define deposition I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of ethnicity
  • I can explain the UK’s geographical diversity through patterns of access to broadband

Causes and consequences of development within the UK

  • I can explain the causes of uneven development within the UK such as geographical location
  • I can explain the causes of uneven development within the UK such as economic change
  • I can explain the causes of uneven development within the UK such as infrastructure
  • I can explain the causes of uneven development within the UK such as government policy

Economic Growth and Decline – CASE STUDY

  • I can explain the consequences of economic growth and decline

The UK’s population is changing

  • I can describe how the UK’s population structure has changed from 1900 to the present day
  • I can explain the Demographic Transition Model and describe how the UK’s position has changed on it over time
  • I can describe the flows of immigration into the UK in the 21st Century
  • I can describe the social and economic impacts of immigration on the UK

Causes and Consequences of urban trends in the UK

  • I can describe the causes for suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation and re-urbanisation in the UK
  • I can describe the social, economic and environmental consequences of suburbanisation, counter-urbanisation and re-urbanisation in the UK

Challenges and ways of life within cities – CASE STUDY

  • I can describe the influences of the city within the region of the West Midland, the UK and the wider world
  • I can describe the impact of national and international migration on the growth and character of the city
  • I can describe the ways of life such as culture, ethnicity, housing, leisure and consumption
  • I can explain the contemporary challenges that affect urban change including housing availability, transport provision and waste management
  • I can explain the sustainable strategies used to overcome either housing availability, transport provision or waste management

UK Environmental Challenges

The UK’s climate and extreme weather conditions

  • I can explain how air masses, the North Atlantic Drift & continentality influence the UK weather
  • I can explain how air masses cause extreme weather in the UK, including extremes of wind, temperature and precipitation

Extreme flooding in the UK – CASE STUDY

  • I can explain the causes of flooding including the extreme weather conditions which led to the event
  • I can explain the effects of the flood on people and the environment
  • I can describe the management of the flood at a variety of scales

How Humans change ecosystems to obtain food, energy and water

  • I can explain how humans use environments through mechanisation of farming and commercial fishing
  • I can explain how people of the UK modify their environment to provide energy through wind farms and fracking
  • I can explain how people modify their environment by building reservoirs and water transfer schemes to provide water

Energy sources in the UK

  • I can identify renewable and non-renewable energy sources
  • I can explain how renewable and non-renewable energy sources supply the UK

Future energy supplies in the UK

  • I can explain how patterns of energy supply and demand in the UK from 1950 to the present day have changed, and how changes have been influenced by government decision making and international organisations
  • I can describe strategies for sustainable use and management of energy at local and UK national scales, including the success of these strategies
  • I can discuss the extent to which non-renewable energy could and should contribute to the UK’s future energy supply
  • I can discuss economic, political and environmental factors affecting UK energy supply in the future

J383/02 Unit 2 – The World Around Us

Ecosystems of the Planet

Ecosystems consist of interdependent components

  • I can explain how biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems are interdependent

The distribution and characteristics of ecosystems

  • I can explain the global distribution of polar regions, coral reefs, grasslands, temperate forests, tropical rainforests, and hot deserts
  • I can show the location of these different global ecosystems (biomes) on a map
  • I can describe the climate, plants and animals within these ecosystems

The major tropical rainforests of the world

  • I can describe the location of the tropical rainforests including the Amazon, Central American, Congo River Basin, Madagascan, South East Asian and Australasian
  • I can explain the processes that operate within tropical rainforests, including nutrient and water cycles

Major tropical rainforests of the World

  • I can explain the interdependence of climate, soil, water, plants, animals and humans
  • I can explain the value of tropical rainforests to humans and to the planet
  • I can describe threats to biodiversity and attempts to mitigate these through sustainable use and management

The major coral reefs of the world

  • I can describe the location of warm water coral reefs including the Great Barrier Reef, Red Sea Coral Reef, New Caledonia Barrier Reef, the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef, Florida Reef and Andros Coral Reef
  • I can explain the process of nutrient cycling that operates within coral reefs

Major coral reefs of the World – CASE STUDY –

  • I can explain the interdependence of climate, soil, water, plants, animals and humans
  • I can explain the value of coral reefs to humans and to the planet
  • I can describe threats to biodiversity and attempts to mitigate these through sustainable use and management

People of the Planet

The world is developing unevenly

  • I can describe the Social, economic and environmental definitions of development, including the concept of sustainable development
  • I can explain the use of different development indicators, including GNI per capita, Human Development Index and Internet Users, and the advantages and disadvantages of these indicators
  • I can explain how development indicators illustrate the consequences of uneven development
  • I can describe current patterns of advanced countries (ACs), emerging and developing countries (EDCs) and low-income developing countries (LIDCs)

There are many causes of uneven development

  • I can outline the reasons for uneven development, including the impact of colonialism on trade and the exploitation of natural resources
  • I can explain different types of aid and their role in both promoting and hindering development

Many factors contribute to a country’s economic development – CASE STUDY –

Case study of one LIDC or EDC. This should illustrate its changing economic development, including the influence of and interrelationships between:

  • the country’s geographical location, and environmental context (landscape, climate, ecosystems, availability and type of natural resources)
  • the country’s political development and relationships with other states principal imports and exports and the relative importance of trade – the role of international investment population and employment structure changes over time
  • social factors, including access to education and healthcare provision technological developments, such as communications technology
  • one aid project.
  • I can use the case study of the LIDC or EDC to explain Rostow’s model to determine the country’s path of economic development

The majority of the world’s population now live in urban areas.

  • I can describe the definition of city, megacity and world city
  • I can describe the distribution of megacities and how this has changed over time
  • I can describe how urban growth rates vary in parts of the world with contrasting levels of development

There are causes and consequences of rapid urbanisation in LIDCs

  • I can describe an overview of the causes of rapid urbanisation in LIDCs including push and pull migration factors, and natural growth
  • I can give an outline of the social, economic and environmental consequences of rapid urbanisation in LIDCs

Cities have distinct challenges and ways of life, influenced by its people and culture.
– CASE STUDY –

Case study of one major city in an LIDC or EDC including the influences of:

  • the city within its region, the country, and the wider world
  • migration (national and international) and its impact on the city’s growth and character
  • the ways of life within the city, such as culture, ethnicity, housing, leisure and consumption
  • contemporary challenges that affect urban change, including housing availability, transport provision and waste management
  • sustainable strategies to overcome one of the city’s challenges.

Environmental Threats to our Planet

The climate has changed from the start of the Quaternary period.

  • I can describe how the climate has changed from the beginning of the Quaternary period to the present day, including ice ages
  • I can describe key periods of warming and cooling since 1000AD, including the medieval warming, Little Ice Age and modern warming
  • I can explain evidence for climate change over different time periods, including global temperature data, ice cores, tree rings, paintings and diaries

There are a number of possible causes of climate change

  • I can explain theories of natural causes of climate change including variations in energy from the sun, changes in the Earth’s orbit and volcanic activity
  • I can explain how human activity is responsible for the enhanced greenhouse effect which contributes to global warming

Climate change has consequences

  • I can give a summary of a range of consequences of climate change currently being experienced across the planet

The global circulation of the atmosphere controls weather and climate

  • I can describe the distribution of the main climatic regions of the world
  • I can describe how the global circulation of the atmosphere is controlled by the movement of air between the poles and the equator
  • I can explain how the global circulation of the atmosphere leads to extreme weather conditions (wind, temperature, precipitation) in different parts of the world

Extreme weather conditions cause different natural weather hazards

  • I can explain the causes of the extreme weather conditions that are associated with the hazards of tropical storms and drought
  • I can describe the distribution and frequency of tropical storms and drought, and whether these have changed over time

Drought can be devastating for people and the environment – CASE STUDY –

Case study of one drought event caused by El Niño/La Niña:

  • how the extreme weather conditions of El Niño/La Niña develop and can lead to drought
  • effects of the drought event on people and the environment
  • ways in which people have adapted to drought in the case study area.

J383/03 Unit 3 – Geographical Skills

Fieldwork Skills

With respect to cartographic skills, you should be able to:

  1. select, adapt and construct maps, using appropriate scales and annotations, to present information
  2. interpret cross-sections and transects
  3. use and understand coordinates, scale and distance
  4. extract, interpret, analyse and evaluate information
  5. use and understand gradient, contour and spot height (on OS and other isocline maps)
  6. describe, interpret and analyse geo-spatial data presented in a GIS framework.

Graphs and charts to be studied:

  • Bar graphs (horizontal, vertical and divided)
  • Histograms (with equal class interval)
  • Line graphs
  • Scatter graphs (including best fit line)
  • Dispersion graphs
  • Pie charts
  • Climate graphs
  • Proportional Symbols
  • Pictograms
  • Cross-sections
  • Population pyramids
  • Radial graphs
  • Rose chart

With respect to numerical and statistical skills, you should be able to:

  1. demonstrate an understanding of number, area and scale
  2. demonstrate an understanding of the quantitative relationships between units
  3. understand and correctly use proportion, ratio, magnitude and frequency
  4. understand and correctly use appropriate measures of central tendency, spread and cumulative frequency including, median, mean, range, quartiles and inter-quartile range, mode and modal class
  5. calculate and understand percentages (increase and decrease) and percentiles
  6. design fieldwork data collection sheets and collect data with an understanding of accuracy, sample size and procedures, control groups and reliability
  7. interpret tables of data
  8. describe relationships in bivariate data
  9. sketch trend lines through scatter plots
  10. draw estimated lines of best fit
  11. make predictions; interpolate and extrapolate trends from data
  12. be able to identify weaknesses in statistical presentations of data
  13. draw and justify conclusions from numerical and statistical data.

You should also be able to:

  1. deconstruct, interpret, analyse and evaluate visual images including photographs, cartoons, pictures and diagrams
  2. analyse written articles from a variety of sources for understanding, interpretation and recognition of bias
  3. suggest improvements to, issues with or reasons for using maps, graphs, statistical techniques and visual sources, such as photographs and diagrams.

Fieldwork skills

The following areas of fieldwork will be assessed, through unfamiliar contexts:

  1. understanding of the kinds of question capable of being investigated through fieldwork and an understanding of the geographical enquiry processes appropriate to investigate these
  2. understanding of the range of techniques and methods used in fieldwork, including observation and different kinds of measurement
  3. processing and presenting fieldwork data in various ways including maps, graphs and diagrams
  4. analysing and explaining data collected in the field using knowledge of relevant geographical case studies and theories
  5. drawing evidenced conclusions and summaries from fieldwork transcripts and data
  6. reflecting critically on fieldwork data, methods used, conclusions drawn and knowledge gained.

Fieldwork skills will be assessed in relation to either physical or human geography contexts or for both in any set of assessments.


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