Revision Guide – Child Development

SUBJECT: Cambridge Nationals Child Development Level 1/2
LENGTH OF PAPERS: Health and Well-being for child development (50% of total marks) 75 minutes
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Black pen (and spare)

Topics to be revised

Learning Outcome 1: Understand reproduction and the roles and responsibilities of parenthood

  • The wide range of factors which affect the decision to have children, i.e. relationship between partners, finance, parental age, peer pressure/social expectations, genetic counselling for hereditary diseases (e.g. Down’s Syndrome, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, muscular dystrophy)
  • Pre-conception health, i.e. diet, exercise, healthy weight, dangers of smoking/alcohol/recreational drugs, up-to-responsibilities of parenthood, i.e. meeting primary needs, i.e. food, clothing, shelter, warmth, rest/sleep, providing love and nurture, socialisation, customs, values (e.g. patterns of behaviour, social interaction, role models)
  • To recognise and evaluate methods of contraception, their efficiency and reliability, i.e. male and female condoms, diaphragm or cap, contraceptive pill (combined and progestogen-only), intrauterine device and intrauterine system, contraceptive injection, contraceptive patch, contraceptive implant, natural family planning, emergency contraceptive pill
  • The structure and function of male and female reproductive systems, i.e. female reproductive system, including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus/lining of the uterus, cervix, vagina, the menstrual cycle and male reproductive system, i.e. testes, sperm duct system/epididymis, urethra, penis, vas deferens
  • How reproduction takes place, i.e. ovulation, conception/fertilisation, implantation, development of the embryo, development of the foetus, multiple pregnancies
  • The signs and symptoms of pregnancy, i.e. missed period, breast changes, passing urine frequently, tiredness, nausea.

Learning Outcome 2: Understand antenatal care and preparation for birth

  • The roles of the different health professionals supporting the pregnant mother, i.e. Midwife, Obstetrician, General Practitioner, Gynaecologist, Paediatrician.
  • The importance of antenatal and parenting classes, i.e. preparing for a safe pregnancy and delivery, preparation of both parents for labour and parenthood, role of father/partner in supporting the mother throughout pregnancy and birth, for the birth to be an emotionally satisfying experience, promotion of healthy lifestyle and breastfeeding
  • Routine checks carried out at an antenatal clinic, including scans, i.e. weight check, blood tests, blood pressure, urine test, STIs, examination of the uterus, baby’s heartbeat, ultrasound dating scan
  • Specialised diagnostic tests, i.e. ultrasound anomaly scan/mid-pregnancy scan, nuchal fold translucency scan, AFP (alpha fetoprotein) test, CVS (chorionic villus sampling), amniocentesis, NIPT blood test (non-invasive prenatal testing)
  • The choices available for delivery, i.e. hospital birth (e.g. Consultant-led units, Midwife or GP-led units, birthing centres) home birth, domino scheme, private hospital/independent midwife
  • The stages of labour and the methods of delivery, including pain relief, i.e. stage 1–neck of the uterus opens, stage 2–the birth of the baby, stage 3–delivery of placenta and membranes
  • Methods of delivery, i.e. forceps, ventouse, elective/emergency caesarean section
  • Pain relief, i.e. gas and air (Entonox), pethidine, epidural anaesthetic, TENS, water birth, breathing and relaxation techniques Learning Outcome 3: Understand postnatal checks, postnatal provision and conditions for development
  • The postnatal checks of the newborn baby, i.e. Apgar score, skin, vernix, lanugo. Physical checks i.e. weight, length, head circumference, fontanelle, eyes, mouth, feet, fingers, hips. Reflexes i.e. sucking, rooting, grasp, walking, startle (Moro)
  • The specific needs of the pre-term (premature) baby, i.e. baby born before 37 weeks and their specific needs, i.e. treatment for infection, breathing problems, feeding problems
  • The postnatal provision available for the mother and baby and the postnatal needs of the family, i.e. the role of the father/partner, support from other family and friends, information, advice and support from the GP, Midwife and Health Visitor, postnatal check 6 weeks after birth, 6-8 week review by Health Visitor or Doctor
  • Conditions for development, i.e. the importance of the environment to the child and the need for love and security, warmth, rest/sleep, exercise/fresh air, cleanliness, stimulation/opportunities to play, opportunities for listening and talking, routine (e.g. bedtime, bath time, feeding), awareness of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
  • The need for acceptable patterns of behaviour and approaches to discipline, i.e. need for boundaries, consideration of others, safety, promoting positive behaviour Learning Outcome 4: Understand how to recognise, manage and prevent childhood illnesses
  • How immunity to disease and infection can be acquired, i.e. babies’ natural immunity, childhood immunisation and vaccination programmes, reasons for immunisation
  • How to recognise and treat common childhood ailments and diseases, i.e. general signs of illness, common childhood ailments and diseases, caring for an ill child
  • When to seek treatment by a doctor, and when emergency medical help should be sought, i.e. key signs and symptoms (e.g. breathing difficulties, unresponsive, limp, high fever, fitting)
  • Diet-related illnesses, i.e. childhood obesity, deficiency diseases, food intolerances and allergies
  • The needs of an ill child, i.e. physical needs, social needs, emotional needs (e.g. explanation of illness), intellectual needs (e.g. stimulation)
  • How to prepare a child for a stay in hospital, i.e. hospital/ward visit, acting out fears, hospital games, books and DVDs, explanation and honesty, involvement in child’s care Learning Outcome 5: Know about child safety
  • How to create a safe, child-friendly environment, i.e. within the home such as; kitchen, bathroom, living room, bedroom, stairs, garden/play areas, road safety
  • Safety labelling, i.e. Kite Mark, BSI safety mark, Lion Mark, age advice symbol, CE symbol, children’s nightwear labelling
  • To be aware of the most common childhood accidents, i.e. choking and suffocation, burns, falls, electric shocks, drowning, poisoning
  • Social safety and personal safety awareness, i.e. awareness of strangers (e.g. “stranger danger”), avoiding inappropriate personal contact (e.g. physical, emotional), internet safety, i.e. dangers (e.g. inappropriate content, in-app purchases, befriending strangers), talking to children about their internet use and how to be safe, safety strategies (e.g. explore sites and apps together, family discussions, set rules and
    agree boundaries, using safe search facilities and restrictions/parental lock.

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