Revision Guide – Child Development
SUBJECT: Cambridge Nationals Child Development Level 1/2
EXAM BOARD AND CODE: OCR J818
NUMBER OF PAPERS: 1
LENGTH OF PAPERS: Health and Well-being for child development (50% of total marks) 75 minutes
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Black pen (and spare)
WEBSITE LINK: https://www.ocr.org.uk/Images/264237-centre-handbook.pdf
Topics to be revised
Learning Outcome1: Understand reproduction and the roles and responsibilities of parenthood
- The wide range of factors which affect the decision to have children, i.e. relationship between partners, finance, parental age, peer pressure/social expectations, genetic counselling for hereditary diseases, (e.g. Down’s Syndrome, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anaemia, muscular dystrophy)
- Pre- conception health, i.e. diet, exercise, healthy weight, dangers of smoking/alcohol/recreational drugs, up-to-date immunisations.
- Roles and responsibilities of parenthood, i.e. meeting primary needs, i.e. food, clothing, shelter, warmth, rest/sleep, providing love and nurture, socialisation, customs, values (e.g. patterns of behaviour, social interaction, role models)
- To recognise and evaluate methods of contraception, their efficiency and reliability, i.e. male and female condoms, diaphragm or cap, contraceptive pill (combined and progestogen only), intrauterine device and intrauterine system, contraceptive injection, contraceptive patch, contraceptive implant, natural family planning, emergency contraceptive pill.
- The structure and function of male and female reproductive systems, i.e. female reproductive system, including ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus/lining of the uterus, cervix, vagina, the menstrual cycle and male reproductive system, i.e. testes, sperm duct system/epididymis, urethra, penis, vas deferens
- How reproduction takes place, i.e. ovulation, conception/fertilisation, implantation, development of the embryo, development of the foetus, multiple pregnancies.
- The signs and symptoms of pregnancy, i.e. missed period, breast changes, passing urine frequently, tiredness, nausea.
Learning Outcome 2: Understand antenatal care and preparation for birth
- The roles of the different health professionals supporting the pregnant mother i.e. Midwife, Obstetrician, General Practitioner, Gynaecologist, Paediatrician.
- The importance of antenatal and parenting classes, i.e. preparing for a safe pregnancy and delivery, preparation of both parents for labour and parenthood, role of farther/partner in supporting the mother throughout pregnancy and birth, for the birth to be emotionally satisfying experience, promotion of healthy lifestyle and breastfeeding.
- Routine checks carried out at an antenatal clinic, including scans, i.e. weight check, blood tests, blood pressure, urine tests, STIs, examination of the uterus, baby’s heartbeat, ultrasound dating scan.
- Specialised diagnostic tests, i.e. ultrasound anomaly scan/mid-pregnancy scan, nuchal fold translucency scan, AFP (alpha fetoprotein) test, CVS (chorionic villus sampling), amniocentesis, NIPT blood test (non-invasive prenatal testing)
- The choices available for delivery, i.e. hospital birth (e.g. consultant-led units, Midwife or GP-led units, birthing centres) home birth, domino scheme, private hospital/ independent midwife.
- The stages of labour and the methods of delivery, including pain relief, i.e. stage1- neck of the uterus opens, stage2- the birth of the baby, stage 3- delivery of placenta and membranes.
- Methods of delivery, i.e. forceps, ventouse, elective/emergency caesarean section.
- Pain relief, i.e. gas and air (Entonox), pethidine, epidural anaesthetic, TENS, water birth, breathing and relaxation techniques.
Outcome 3: Understand postnatal checks, postnatal provision and conditions of development
- The postnatal checks of the new born baby, i.e. Apgar score, skin, vernix, lanugo. Physical checks i.e. weight, length, head circumference, fontanelle, eyes, mouth, feet, fingers, hips. Reflexes i.e. sucking, rooting, grasp, walking, startle (Moro).
- The specific needs of the pre-term (premature) baby, i.e. baby born before 37 weeks and their specific needs, i.e. treatment for infection, breathing problems, feeing problems.
- The postnatal provision available for the mother and baby and the postnatal needs of the family, i.e. the role of the father/ partner, support from other family and friends, information, advice and support from the GP, Midweek and Health Visitor, postnatal check 6 weeks after birth, 6-8 week review by Health Visitor or Doctor
- Conditions for development, i.e. the importance of the environment to the child and the need for love and security, warmth, rest/sleep, exercise/fresh air, cleanliness, stimulation/opportunities to play, opportunities for listening and talking, routine (e.g. bedtime, bath time, feeding), awareness of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS).
- The need for acceptable patterns of behaviour and approaches to discipline, i.e. need to boundaries, consideration of others, safety, promoting positive behaviour.
Outcome 4: Understand how to recognise, manage and prevent childhood illness
- How immunity to disease and infection can be acquired, i.e. babies natural immunity, childhood immunisation and vaccination programmes, reasons for immunisation.
- How to recognise and treat common childhood ailments and diseases, i.e. general sigs of illness, common childhood ailments and diseases, i.e. general signs of illness, common childhood ailments and diseases, caring for an ill child.
- When to seek treatment by a doctor, and when emergency medical help should be sought, i.e. key sings and symptoms (e.g. breathing difficulties, unresponsive, limp, high fever, fitting)
- Diet-related illnesses, i.e. childhood obesity, deficiency diseases, food intolerances and allergies.
- The needs of an ill child, i.e. physical needs, social needs, emotional needs (e.g. explanation of illness), intellectual needs (e.g. stimulation)
- How to prepare a child for a stay in hospital, i.e. hospital/ward visit, actin out fears, hospital games, books, and DVD, explanation and honesty, involvement in the child’s care.
Outcome 5: Know about child safety
- How to create a safe, child-friendly environment, i.e. within the home such as; kitchen, bathroom living room, bedroom, stairs, garden/play areas, road safety.
- Safety labelling, i.e. Kite Mark, BSI safety mark, Lion Mark, age advice symbol, CE symbol, children’s nightwear labelling.
- To be aware of the most childhood accidents, i.e. Choking and suffocation, burns, falls, electric shocks, drowning, poisoning.
- Social safety and personal safety awareness, i.e. awareness of strangers (e.g. ”stranger danger”), avoiding inappropriate personal contact (e.g. physical, emotional), internet safety, i.e. dangers (e.g. inappropriate content, in-app purchases, befriending strangers), talking to children about their internet use and how to be sage, safety strategies (e.g. explore sites and apps together, family discussions, set rules and agree boundaries, using safe search facilities and restrictions/parental lock.
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