Revision Guide – History

SUBJECT: History
Paper 1 (75 mins)
– Medicine in Britain c1250-present
– Site study: British sector of the Western Front, 1914-18: injuries, treatment and the trenches
Paper 2 (55 mins)
– Anglo-Saxons and Norman England, c1060-88
Paper 3 (80 mins)
– The USA: Conflict at Home and Abroad (Civil Rights and Vietnam)
Please note the Cold War Topic has been removed this year. This is a decision made by the exam board for this year only to remove one paper due to school closures due to covid-19.
EQUIPMENT REQUIRED: Black Pen and spare

Topics to be revised

Paper 1 – Medicine in Britain, c1550-present (Question focus: Change over time)

  • Four Humours: Galen and Hippocrates
  • Miasma theory
  • Importance of religion on explanations for disease and treatment
  • Treatments: bloodletting, purging, remedies
  • Role of apothecaries and barber surgeons
  • Black Death: causes, treatment and prevention
  • Growth of science and Royal Society
  • Work of Thomas Sydenham
  • Role of the printing press
  • Early hospitals
  • Work of Vesalius
  • William Harvey and blood circulation
  • Great Plague: causes, treatment and prevention
  • Jenner and the development of smallpox vaccination
  • Pasteur and Germ Theory
  • Koch’s work on microbes
  • Florence Nightingale and improvements in hospitals (also anaesthetics and antiseptics)
  • Role of the government (vaccinations and Public Health Act 1875)
  • Cholera, 1854: causes, treatment and prevention (John Snow and Broad Street pump)
  • Fleming, Florey and Chain’s development of penicillin
  • Discovery of DNA and the importance of genetics and lifestyle on health
  • Advances in medicines (magic bullets, antibiotics, use of insulin for diabetes)
  • Improvements in diagnosis: MRI scanners, blood tests etc.
  • Role of the government in vaccination campaigns and healthy lifestyle campaigns (e.g anti-smoking/lung cancer campaign)

Site Study: British Sector of the Western Front, 1914-18: Injuries, Treatment and the Trenches (Question focus: Using sources)

  • British sector of Western Front: Ypres Salient, Battle of Somme, Arras and Cambrai
  • Trench system, use of caves, tunnels and mines (Hill 60) and the impact of this on medical care
  • Common illnesses such as trench foot and infections
  • Nature of injuries: shrapnel wounds, gas attacks, head injuries
  • Work of RAMC and FANY
  • System of transport: stretcher bearers, horse and motor ambulances
  • First aid posts, dressing stations, casualty clearing stations and base hospitals (underground hospital at Arras)
  • Developments in treatments: Thomas splint, mobile x-rays, blood bank at Battle of Cambrai
  • Knowledge of sources useful to this topic (newspapers, diaries, army records, government records, photos)

Paper 2 – Anglo-Saxon and Norman England, 1060-1088: (Question focus: Causation)

  • Anglo Saxon society: monarch, Earls, thegns, ceorls, peasants and slaves
  • Ruling England: Witan, taxation, punishments, fyrd, heptarchy
  • Anglo-Saxon Church
  • Power of the Godwin family
  • Harold Godwinson’s embassy to Normandy
  • Tostig as Earl of Northumbria and his rebellion/exile
  • Succession crisis following death of Edward the Confessor: 4 claimants (William of Normandy, Edgar Aetheling, Harald Hardrada and Harold Godwinson)
  • Coronation of Harold Godwinson
  • Battle of Gate Fulford
  • Battle of Stamford Bridge
  • Battle of Hastings
  • William’s journey to London, harrying, submission of Edgar Aetheling and William’s coronation
  • Marcher Earldoms, confiscation of land, building motte and bailey castles and churches
  • Revolt of Edwin and Morcar
  • Rebellions in the North and harrying of the North
  • Hereward the Wake and the rebellion at Ely
  • Revolt of the Earls (1075): Roger of Hereford, Ralph of Norfolk and Waltheof of Northumbria
  • Changes in society in Norman England: feudal system (tenants-in-chief and villeins)
  • Role of the Church, including Archbishop Stigand and Lanfranc
  • Life in towns and villages – role of merchants and use of garrisons
  • William’s government: role of regents (Odo and Lanfranc)
  • Office of the Sherrif and the Demesne; role of the Forest and Forest Laws
  • Use of the Domesday Book
  • William and his succession (Robert and his revolt; William Rufus)

Paper 3: (Question focus: Interpreting historians opinions)
The USA: Conflict at Home and Abroad, 1954-75

  • Life for Black Americans in the early 1950s: segregation, Jim Crow laws, Plessy vs. Ferguson
  • Establishment of NAACP and CORE
  • Education: Brown vs. Topeka and Little Rock High School Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • Civil Rights Act, 1957
  • Significance of Martin Luther King’s leadership; setting up of SCLC
  • Opposition to civil rights: KKK, White Citizens Councils, Dixiecrats
  • Murder of Emmett Till
  • Greensboro sit-ins and Freedom Rides (KKK violence/Anniston bomb)
  • James Meredith case
  • Marches in Birmingham, Washington and Selma
  • Freedom Summer and Mississippi murders
  • Role of Kennedy and Johnson in the Civil Rights Act 1964
  • Voting Rights Act, 1965
  • Malcolm X: his influence and assassination
  • Black Panthers
  • Black power movement and Mexico Olympics
  • Stanley Carmichael
  • Riots of 1965-7 and Kerner Report
  • Assassination of Martin Luther King
  • Battle of Dien Bien Phu and the end of French rule in Vietnam
  • Domino theory and reasons for US involvement
  • Weaknesses of Diem’s government (Strategic Hamlets)
  • Escalation under Johnson: Gulf of Tonkin incident
  • Vietcong tactics (guerrilla warfare, Ho Chi Minh trail)
  • USA tactics (Operation Rolling Thunder, Search and Destroy, agent orange and napalm bombs)
  • Tet offensive
  • Nixon’s impact: Vietnamisation
  • US attacks on Laos and Cambodia
  • Nixon Doctrine and withdrawal of US troops
  • Peace negotiations and the Paris Peace Agreement
  • Opposition to the war in the USA (media coverage, My Lai massacre, student protests and Kent State shootings, economic and human cost of the war
  • Support for the war: “silent majority” and “hard hats”
  • Reasons for US failure in Vietnam

Revision Tips

  • Make timelines, revision cards and spider diagrams and practise explaining how events are caused, how far things change, why an event/individual is important and the effects of an event.
  • Ask your teacher for practice exam questions.
  • Don’t forget to revise the structures and timings as well.
  • These papers are content heavy so know your key people, facts and events.

Exam Hints

  • Read the question carefully. What is it asking you to do? Make sure you use the wording of the question in your answer
  • Each mark on the papers should take about 1.5 minutes.

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